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  • Monitoring and Managing Tomcat

    Table of Contents

    Introduction

    新开户送体验金68 www.oneworldfilmnet.com Monitoring is a key aspect of system administration. Looking inside a running server, obtaining some statistics or reconfiguring some aspects of an application are all daily administration tasks.

    Enabling JMX Remote

    Note: This configuration is needed only if you are going to monitor Tomcat remotely. It is not needed if you are going to monitor it locally, using the same user that Tomcat runs with.

    The Oracle website includes the list of options and how to configure JMX Remote on Java 6: http://docs.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/management/agent.html.

    The following is a quick configuration guide for Java 6:

    Add the following parameters to setenv.bat script of your Tomcat (see RUNNING.txt for details).
    Note: This syntax is for Microsoft Windows. The command has to be on the same line. It is wrapped to be more readable. If Tomcat is running as a Windows service, use its configuration dialog to set java options for the service. For un*xes remove "set " from beginning of the line.

    set CATALINA_OPTS=-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote
      -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=%my.jmx.port%
      -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false
      -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false
    1. If you require authorization, add and change this:
        -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=true
        -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file=../conf/jmxremote.password
        -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file=../conf/jmxremote.access
    2. edit the access authorization file $CATALINA_BASE/conf/jmxremote.access:
      monitorRole readonly
      controlRole readwrite
    3. edit the password file $CATALINA_BASE/conf/jmxremote.password:
      monitorRole tomcat
      controlRole tomcat
      Tip: The password file should be read-only and only accessible by the operating system user Tomcat is running as.

    Note: The JSR 160 JMX-Adaptor opens a second data channel on a random port. That is a problem when you have a local firewall installed. To fix it, configure a JmxRemoteLifecycleListener, as described in listeners documentation.

    Manage Tomcat with JMX remote Ant Tasks

    To simplify JMX usage with Ant 1.6.x, a set of tasks is provided that may be used with antlib.

    antlib: Copy your catalina-ant.jar from $CATALINA_HOME/lib to $ANT_HOME/lib.

    The following example shows the JMX Accessor usage:
    Note: The name attribute value was wrapped here to be more readable. It has to be all on the same line, without spaces.

    <project name="Catalina Ant JMX"
          xmlns:jmx="antlib:org.apache.catalina.ant.jmx"
          default="state"
          basedir=".">
      <property name="jmx.server.name" value="localhost" />
      <property name="jmx.server.port" value="9012" />
      <property name="cluster.server.address" value="192.168.1.75" />
      <property name="cluster.server.port" value="9025" />
    
      <target name="state" description="Show JMX Cluster state">
        <jmx:open
          host="${jmx.server.name}"
          port="${jmx.server.port}"
          username="controlRole"
          password="tomcat"/>
        <jmx:get
          name=
    "Catalina:type=IDataSender,host=localhost,
    senderAddress=${cluster.server.address},senderPort=${cluster.server.port}"
          attribute="connected"
          resultproperty="IDataSender.backup.connected"
          echo="false"
        />
        <jmx:get
          name="Catalina:type=ClusterSender,host=localhost"
          attribute="senderObjectNames"
          resultproperty="senderObjectNames"
          echo="false"
        />
        <!-- get current maxActiveSession from ClusterTest application
           echo it to Ant output and store at
           property <em>clustertest.maxActiveSessions.orginal</em>
        -->
        <jmx:get
          name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/ClusterTest,host=localhost"
          attribute="maxActiveSessions"
          resultproperty="clustertest.maxActiveSessions.orginal"
          echo="true"
        />
        <!-- set maxActiveSession to 100
        -->
        <jmx:set
          name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/ClusterTest,host=localhost"
          attribute="maxActiveSessions"
          value="100"
          type="int"
        />
        <!-- get all sessions and split result as delimiter <em>SPACE</em> for easy
           access all session ids directly with Ant property sessions.[0..n].
        -->
        <jmx:invoke
          name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/ClusterTest,host=localhost"
          operation="listSessionIds"
          resultproperty="sessions"
          echo="false"
          delimiter=" "
        />
        <!-- Access session attribute <em>Hello</em> from first session.
        -->
        <jmx:invoke
          name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/ClusterTest,host=localhost"
          operation="getSessionAttribute"
          resultproperty="Hello"
          echo="false"
        >
          <arg value="${sessions.0}"/>
          <arg value="Hello"/>
        </jmx:invoke>
        <!-- Query for all application manager.of the server from all hosts
           and bind all attributes from all found manager MBeans.
        -->
        <jmx:query
          name="Catalina:type=Manager,*"
          resultproperty="manager"
          echo="true"
          attributebinding="true"
        />
        <!-- echo the create properties -->
    <echo>
    senderObjectNames: ${senderObjectNames.0}
    IDataSender.backup.connected: ${IDataSender.backup.connected}
    session: ${sessions.0}
    manager.length: ${manager.length}
    manager.0.name: ${manager.0.name}
    manager.1.name: ${manager.1.name}
    hello: ${Hello}
    manager.ClusterTest.0.name: ${manager.ClusterTest.0.name}
    manager.ClusterTest.0.activeSessions: ${manager.ClusterTest.0.activeSessions}
    manager.ClusterTest.0.counterSend_EVT_SESSION_EXPIRED:
     ${manager.ClusterTest.0.counterSend_EVT_SESSION_EXPIRED}
    manager.ClusterTest.0.counterSend_EVT_GET_ALL_SESSIONS:
     ${manager.ClusterTest.0.counterSend_EVT_GET_ALL_SESSIONS}
    </echo>
    
      </target>
    
    </project>

    import: Import the JMX Accessor Project with <import file="${CATALINA.HOME}/bin/catalina-tasks.xml" /> and reference the tasks with jmxOpen, jmxSet, jmxGet, jmxQuery, jmxInvoke, jmxEquals and jmxCondition.

    JMXAccessorOpenTask - JMX open connection task

    List of Attributes

    Attribute Description Default value
    url Set JMX connection URL - service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:8050/jmxrmi
    host Set the host, shortcut the very long URL syntax. localhost
    port Set the remote connection port 8050
    username remote JMX connection user name.
    password remote JMX connection password.
    ref Name of the internal connection reference. With this attribute you can configure more the one connection inside the same Ant project. jmx.server
    echo Echo the command usage (for access analysis or debugging) false
    if Only execute if a property of the given name exists in the current project.
    unless Only execute if a property of the given name not exists in the current project.

    Example to open a new JMX connection

      <jmx:open
        host="${jmx.server.name}"
        port="${jmx.server.port}"
      />

    Example to open a JMX connection from URL, with authorization and store at other reference

      <jmx:open
        url="service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:9024/jmxrmi"
        ref="jmx.server.9024"
        username="controlRole"
        password="tomcat"
      />

    Example to open a JMX connection from URL, with authorization and store at other reference, but only when property jmx.if exists and jmx.unless not exists

      <jmx:open
        url="service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:9024/jmxrmi"
        ref="jmx.server.9024"
        username="controlRole"
        password="tomcat"
        if="jmx.if"
        unless="jmx.unless"
      />

    Note: All properties from jmxOpen task also exists at all other tasks and conditions.

    JMXAccessorGetTask: get attribute value Ant task

    List of Attributes

    Attribute Description Default value
    name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=Server
    attribute Existing MBean attribute (see Tomcat MBean description above)
    ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
    echo Echo command usage (access and result) false
    resultproperty Save result at this project property
    delimiter Split result with delimiter (java.util.StringTokenizer) and use resultproperty as prefix to store tokens.
    separatearrayresults When return value is an array, save result as property list ($resultproperty.[0..N] and $resultproperty.length) true

    Example to get remote MBean attribute from default JMX connection

      <jmx:get
        name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/servlets-examples,host=localhost"
        attribute="maxActiveSessions"
        resultproperty="servlets-examples.maxActiveSessions"
      />

    Example to get and result array and split it at separate properties

      <jmx:get
          name="Catalina:type=ClusterSender,host=localhost"
          attribute="senderObjectNames"
          resultproperty="senderObjectNames"
      />

    Access the senderObjectNames properties with:

      ${senderObjectNames.length} give the number of returned sender list.
      ${senderObjectNames.[0..N]} found all sender object names

    Example to get IDataSender attribute connected only when cluster is configured.
    Note: The name attribute value was wrapped here to be more readable. It has to be all on the same line, without spaces.

    
      <jmx:query
        failonerror="false"
        name="Catalina:type=Cluster,host=${tomcat.application.host}"
        resultproperty="cluster"
      />
      <jmx:get
        name=
    "Catalina:type=IDataSender,host=${tomcat.application.host},
    senderAddress=${cluster.backup.address},senderPort=${cluster.backup.port}"
        attribute="connected"
        resultproperty="datasender.connected"
        if="cluster.0.name" />

    JMXAccessorSetTask: set attribute value Ant task

    List of Attributes

    Attribute Description Default value
    name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=Server
    attribute Existing MBean attribute (see Tomcat MBean description above)
    value value that set to attribute
    type type of the attribute. java.lang.String
    ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
    echo Echo command usage (access and result) false

    Example to set remote MBean attribute value

      <jmx:set
        name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/servlets-examples,host=localhost"
        attribute="maxActiveSessions"
        value="500"
        type="int"
      />

    JMXAccessorInvokeTask: invoke MBean operation Ant task

    List of Attributes

    Attribute Description Default value
    name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=Server
    operation Existing MBean operation (see Tomcat funcspecs/fs-admin-opers.html).
    ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
    echo Echo command usage (access and result) false
    resultproperty Save result at this project property
    delimiter Split result with delimiter (java.util.StringTokenizer) and use resultproperty as prefix to store tokens.
    separatearrayresults When return value is an array, save result as property list ($resultproperty.[0..N] and $resultproperty.length) true

    stop an application

      <jmx:invoke
        name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/servlets-examples,host=localhost"
        operation="stop"/>

    Now you can find the sessionid at ${sessions.[0..N} properties and access the count with ${sessions.length} property.

    Example to get all sessionids

      <jmx:invoke
        name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/servlets-examples,host=localhost"
        operation="listSessionIds"
        resultproperty="sessions"
        delimiter=" "
      />

    Now you can find the sessionid at ${sessions.[0..N} properties and access the count with ${sessions.length} property.

    Example to get remote MBean session attribute from session ${sessionid.0}

      <jmx:invoke
        name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/ClusterTest,host=localhost"
        operation="getSessionAttribute"
        resultproperty="hello">
         <arg value="${sessionid.0}"/>
         <arg value="Hello" />
      </jmx:invoke>

    Example to create a new access logger valve at vhost localhost

     <jmx:invoke
             name="Catalina:type=MBeanFactory"
             operation="createAccessLoggerValve"
             resultproperty="accessLoggerObjectName"
     >
         <arg value="Catalina:type=Host,host=localhost"/>
     </jmx:invoke>

    Now you can find new MBean with name stored at ${accessLoggerObjectName} property.

    JMXAccessorQueryTask: query MBean Ant task

    List of Attributes

    Attribute Description Default value
    name JMX ObjectName query string -- Catalina:type=Manager,*
    ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
    echo Echo command usage (access and result) false
    resultproperty Prefix project property name to all founded MBeans (mbeans.[0..N].objectname)
    attributebinding bind ALL MBean attributes in addition to name false
    delimiter Split result with delimiter (java.util.StringTokenizer) and use resultproperty as prefix to store tokens.
    separatearrayresults When return value is an array, save result as property list ($resultproperty.[0..N] and $resultproperty.length) true

    Get all Manager ObjectNames from all services and Hosts

      <jmx:query
        name="Catalina:type=Manager,*
        resultproperty="manager" />

    Now you can find the Session Manager at ${manager.[0..N].name} properties and access the result object counter with ${manager.length} property.

    Example to get the Manager from servlet-examples application an bind all MBean properties

      <jmx:query
        name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/servlet-examples,host=localhost*"
        attributebinding="true"
        resultproperty="manager.servletExamples" />

    Now you can find the manager at ${manager.servletExamples.0.name} property and can access all properties from this manager with ${manager.servletExamples.0.[manager attribute names]}. The result object counter from MBeans is stored ad ${manager.length} property.

    Example to get all MBeans from a server and store inside an external XML property file

    <project name="jmx.query"
                xmlns:jmx="antlib:org.apache.catalina.ant.jmx"
                default="query-all" basedir=".">
    <property name="jmx.host" value="localhost"/>
    <property name="jmx.port" value="8050"/>
    <property name="jmx.username" value="controlRole"/>
    <property name="jmx.password" value="tomcat"/>
    
    <target name="query-all" description="Query all MBeans of a server">
      <!-- Configure connection -->
      <jmx:open
        host="${jmx.host}"
        port="${jmx.port}"
        ref="jmx.server"
        username="${jmx.username}"
        password="${jmx.password}"/>
    
      <!-- Query MBean list -->
      <jmx:query
        name="*:*"
        resultproperty="mbeans"
        attributebinding="false"/>
    
      <echoproperties
        destfile="mbeans.properties"
        prefix="mbeans."
        format="xml"/>
    
      <!-- Print results -->
      <echo message=
        "Number of MBeans in server ${jmx.host}:${jmx.port} is ${mbeans.length}"/>
    </target>
    </project>

    Now you can find all MBeans inside the file mbeans.properties.

    JMXAccessorCreateTask: remote create MBean Ant task

    List of Attributes

    Attribute Description Default value
    name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=MBeanFactory
    className Existing MBean full qualified class name (see Tomcat MBean description above)
    classLoader ObjectName of server or web application classloader
    ( Catalina:type=ServerClassLoader,name=[server,common,shared] or
    Catalina:type=WebappClassLoader,context=/myapps,host=localhost)
    ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
    echo Echo command usage (access and result) false

    Example to create remote MBean

      <jmx:create
        ref="${jmx.reference}"
        name="Catalina:type=MBeanFactory"
        className="org.apache.commons.modeler.BaseModelMBean"
        classLoader="Catalina:type=ServerClassLoader,name=server">
        <arg value="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.MBeanFactory" />
      </jmx:create>

    Warning: Many Tomcat MBeans can't be linked to their parent once
    created. The Valve, Cluster and Realm MBeans are not automatically
    connected with their parent. Use the MBeanFactory create
    operation instead.

    JMXAccessorUnregisterTask: remote unregister MBean Ant task

    List of Attributes

    Attribute Description Default value
    name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=MBeanFactory
    ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
    echo Echo command usage (access and result) false

    Example to unregister remote MBean

      <jmx:unregister
        name="Catalina:type=MBeanFactory"
      />

    Warning: A lot of Tomcat MBeans can't be unregister.
    The MBeans are not unlinked from their parent. Use MBeanFactory
    remove operation instead.

    JMXAccessorCondition: express condition

    List of Attributes

    Attribute Description Default value
    url Set JMX connection URL - service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:8050/jmxrmi
    host Set the host, shortcut the very long URL syntax. localhost
    port Set the remote connection port 8050
    username remote JMX connection user name.
    password remote JMX connection password.
    ref Name of the internal connection reference. With this attribute you can configure more the one connection inside the same Ant project. jmx.server
    name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=Server
    echo Echo condition usage (access and result) false
    if Only execute if a property of the given name exists in the current project.
    unless Only execute if a property of the given name not exists in the current project.
    value (required) Second arg for operation
    type Value type to express operation (support long and double) long
    operation express one
    • == equals
    • != not equals
    • > greater than (&gt;)
    • >= greater than or equals (&gt;=)
    • < lesser than (&lt;)
    • <= lesser than or equals (&lt;=)
    ==

    Wait for server connection and that cluster backup node is accessable

    <target name="wait">
      <waitfor maxwait="${maxwait}" maxwaitunit="second" timeoutproperty="server.timeout" >
        <and>
          <socket server="${server.name}" port="${server.port}"/>
          <http url="${url}"/>
          <jmx:condition
            operation="=="
            host="localhost"
            port="9014"
            username="controlRole"
            password="tomcat"
            name=
    "Catalina:type=IDataSender,host=localhost,senderAddress=192.168.111.1,senderPort=9025"
            attribute="connected"
            value="true"
          />
        </and>
      </waitfor>
      <fail if="server.timeout" message="Server ${url} don't answer inside ${maxwait} sec" />
      <echo message="Server ${url} alive" />
    </target>

    JMXAccessorEqualsCondition: equals MBean Ant condition

    List of Attributes

    Attribute Description Default value
    url Set JMX connection URL - service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:8050/jmxrmi
    host Set the host, shortcut the very long URL syntax. localhost
    port Set the remote connection port 8050
    username remote JMX connection user name.
    password remote JMX connection password.
    ref Name of the internal connection reference. With this attribute you can configure more the one connection inside the same Ant project. jmx.server
    name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=Server
    echo Echo condition usage (access and result) false

    Wait for server connection and that cluster backup node is accessible

    <target name="wait">
      <waitfor maxwait="${maxwait}" maxwaitunit="second" timeoutproperty="server.timeout" >
        <and>
          <socket server="${server.name}" port="${server.port}"/>
          <http url="${url}"/>
          <jmx:equals
            host="localhost"
            port="9014"
            username="controlRole"
            password="tomcat"
            name=
    "Catalina:type=IDataSender,host=localhost,senderAddress=192.168.111.1,senderPort=9025"
            attribute="connected"
            value="true"
          />
        </and>
      </waitfor>
      <fail if="server.timeout" message="Server ${url} don't answer inside ${maxwait} sec" />
      <echo message="Server ${url} alive" />
    </target>

    Using the JMXProxyServlet

    Tomcat offers an alternative to using remote (or even local) JMX connections while still giving you access to everything JMX has to offer: Tomcat's JMXProxyServlet.

    The JMXProxyServlet allows a client to issue JMX queries via an HTTP interface. This technique offers the following advantages over using JMX directly from a client program:

    • You don't have to launch a full JVM and make a remote JMX connection just to ask for one small piece of data from a running server
    • You don't have to know how to work with JMX connections
    • You don't need any of the complex configuration covered in the rest of this page
    • Your client program does not have to be written in Java

    A perfect example of JMX overkill can be seen in the case of popular server-monitoring software such as Nagios or Icinga: if you want to monitor 10 items via JMX, you will have to launch 10 JVMs, make 10 JMX connections, and then shut them all down every few minutes. With the JMXProxyServlet, you can make 10 HTTP connections and be done with it.

    You can find out more information about the JMXProxyServlet in the documentation for the Tomcat manager.

    Comments

    Notice: This comments section collects your suggestions on improving documentation for Apache Tomcat.

    If you have trouble and need help, read Find Help page and ask your question on the tomcat-users 新开户送体验金68. Do not ask such questions here. This is not a Q&A section.

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